Real-time carbon emissions intensity of the National Electricity Market

This data set consists of estimates of the carbon emissions intensity of grid-consumed energy for the five regions of the National Electricity Market updated at five-minute intervals. Estimates are calculated using an energy balance model combined with publicly available generator SCADA data, interconnector power flows/losses and regional demand data sourced from the market operator. Generator carbon emissions intensity factors include Scope 1 and Scope 3 emissions (and 2 for semi-scheduled generators only).
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The global emissions intensity model uses a graph-based flow tracing algorithm to trace consumed electricity to its origin of production. This allows accurate carbon accounting of electricity consumption across various levels, ranging from micro levels such as site or building-based consumption to macro levels such as regional consumption. This model computes values over a five-minute period and is configured to yield five distinct time-series outputs for each National Electricity Market region.

Electricity production is a significant contributor to global energy-related emissions. Understanding the dynamic nature of grid emissions intensity – the emissions per unit of energy consumed – is essential for devising effective emissions reduction strategies and, for example, for moving beyond net-zero-emissions to 24/7 zero emissions. This model addresses this need, offering near-real-time consumption-based emissions intensity estimates. Input data is sourced directly from the market operator and comprises real-time generator supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) data, interconnector power flow/losses and regional demand data. The generator carbon emissions intensity factors cover both Scope 1 and Scope 3 emissions (and 2 for semi-scheduled generators only). This data, when integrated with region-fuel-specific generator emissions factors, enables the estimation of time-dependent consumption-based emissions intensity of the power consumed across the five regions of the NEM.


CSIRO disclaim all warranties as to the accuracy of the data in this dataset or the acceptable performance or fitness of the data for any particular purpose.


API Guide

Table 1 Overview of the global emissions intensity model

Model type


Transmission losses

Included within the flow-tracing approach.

Region import/export


Emissions factors

A weighted average of the generator-fuel specific sourced from AEMO’s CDEII (updated monthly) and revised with the IPCC report.

Scope 1 & 3 (and 2 for semi-scheduled generators only)


5-minute resolution time-series




g CO2 / kWh


  • Unknowable values (no emissions intensity data available for known power generation) are filled with a value of -999.
  • Missing values are NULL.
  • The UNKNOWN stream is an aggregation of all un-matched generation data that may or may not represent actual power generation. As such, an aggregate emissions factor value is derived from the bulk (known) NEM data as a placeholder value for continuity purposes only–this stream should not be used in practice.